UN says Africa has 54 countries while AU says it’s 55 . Most populous country Nigeria has almost 200 million people while the Seychelles has just 90,000. Some territories still belong to France and UK. This is Africa at a glance

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Africa is a beautiful continent with 54 countries, according to the United Nations, and 55, according to the African Union. UN and AU disagree over one country: The Western Sahara, also known as Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR).

On January 30, 2017, Morocco was readmitted into the African Union after a 33 year absence following a vote at the AU Summit in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

But despite Morocco’s readmission, the dispute over Western Sahara’s independence, which triggered its exit from the union, still remains.

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In 1984, Morocco left the AU after the body decided to recognize the independence of Western Sahara and admitted it as a member state.

“Morocco has long contended the territory is under its control. While most of the territory has been annexed by Morocco since 1975, it has been in involved in a violent conflict with Western Saharan independence movement Polisario Front which insists the territory is a sovereign independent state. Until a ceasefire brokered by the United Nations (UN) in 1991, both parties remained at odds resulting in the displacement of 90,000 people, according to UN’s Refugee Agency,” noted Quartz Africa.

Science Trends summarizes this way: The number of countries in Africa depends on who you ask – the United Nations or the AU.

Below is how Daniel Nelson of Science Trends beautifully summarized the continent of Africa in a captivating piece published on November 9, 2017 and titled “How Many Countries In Africa?

Daniel writes: The continent of Africa has 54 countries in total according to the United Nations, including recognized states and territories. However, there are some disputed territories that could change the number of countries.

Africa is the world’s second most populated and second largest continent. It is also home to a wide variety of countries. The exact number of countries in Africa varies depending on who you talk to, with there being anywhere between 47 to 55 countries on the continent. Officially, the United Nations recognizes 54 different countries. Meanwhile, the African Union recognizes 55. Why does the number of countries in Africa vary so much?

Before diving too far into why the number of countries in Africa fluctuates, let’s take a good look at the countries that are typically recognized as existing on the African continent.

The Countries of Africa

Africa is home to a vast array of countries, from massive countries amongst the most populated in the world to countries with some of the smallest populations.

The five largest countries in Africa are Nigeria, Ethiopia, Egypt, The Democratic Republic of the Congo, and South Africa. The largest country in Africa, in terms of population, in Nigeria. Nigeria is roughly in the middle of Africa on the Atlantic coast and is home to around 186 million people. Ethiopia is the second largest country in Africa, home to around 104 million people, followed by Egypt whose population is approximately 95 million people. The Democratic Republic of the Congo is home to around 78 million, and rounding out the five largest countries in Africa is South Africa, which has a population of about 55 million.

At the opposite end of the scale, Africa is home to some very small countries, including Djibouti, Comoros, Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe, and the Seychelles. Djibouti has a population of about 865,000 people, while Comoros has a population of around 807,000. Cape Verge is home to around 492,000 people. São Tomé and Príncipe is the second smallest country in Africa with a population of 179,200 people and the Seychelles is home to just 90,000 people.

Country Recognition Disputes in Africa

The reason the number of countries in Africa varies is due to disputes and inconsistencies surrounding several nations, with several islands off the coast of Africa being of disputed national status. An example of a nation with disputed recognition is Somaliland. The government of Somaliland declared independence from Somalia in 1991, and have governed territory from the capital of Hargeisa since then. The Oxford English Dictionary defines a country as “a nation with its own government, occupying a particular territory”. If this definition was used, Somaliland would be its own country.

The United Nations recognizes Somaliland as a de jure autonomous region inside of Somalia. Yet many of its neighboring countries and many in Somalia still do not recognize it as a country. Somaliland shares its disputed recognition with other regions like Western Sahara.

Western Sahara is a region that is approximately the size of Colorado, located on the Atlantic coast of North Africa, and bordered by Mauritania, Algeria, and Morocco. The country was colonized by Spain in the late 19th century and was a part of the greater Spanish kingdom for over 100 years. Western Sahara is home to around 570,000 people and sits upon rich deposits of iron ore, phosphate, and possibly offshore oil deposits.

Western Sahara’s native population is called Sahrawis. Morocco laid claim to the country through an annex in 1975, and Spain then transferred control of the entire region to Morocco and Mauritania.  However, the indigenous Sahrawi population has pushed hard for independence in recent years. Western Sahara’s independence is recognized by at least two political powerhouses in Africa, Nigeria, and South Africa, but the push for independence is contentious to Morocco. (Morocco, incidentally, just joined the African Union 2017.)

It’s Not Just Africa

Though it may seem unusual to not be able to say for sure how many countries exist on a continent, the phenomena isn’t actually that rare. Disputes over borders and national sovereignty/recognition are also happening in Asia. There are long-standing disagreements about if Taiwan can be considered its own nation, ever since it separated from China in 1949. The Taiwanese government has been worried about political retaliation from Beijing if it seeks to declare its independence, so it has not officially done so. Despite this, Taiwan governs itself and has its own currency, making it pretty much its own country.

Europe is also home to sovereignty disputes. Serbia does not recognize Kosovo as its own independent nation, even though most other countries in Europe do.

The Legacy of the Colonial Period

Many of these disputes can be traced back to the colonial era, with countries and populations that existed for many years under the rule of a colonial government just now seeing independence. As it stands Africa is still home to dependent territories belonging to France and Great Britain, including Mayotte and Saint Helena.

In the final quarter of the 19th century, the European powers drew up their own maps and divided regions into countries as they saw fit. Even as decolonization occurred, the borders of countries shifted back and forth. Libya kicked off the decolonization trend in 1951, and during the 50’s and 60’s many other countries would gain their independence. 1958 saw the large region of French West Africa become around 8 different countries, including what is now Mali, Guinea, and Niger. Most of the remaining countries of Africa would gain their independence sometime during the 1960’s. The independence of Namibia in 1990 would mark the tail end of decolonization, though in 1993 Eritrea broke off from Ethiopia to establish its own independence.

The effect of this sudden political upheaval created by colonization was that native populations and regions were forced to live in countries created by imperial powers. As a result, power dynamics and governments were formed without much regard to the wishes of those who lived there, and the ensuing struggle for independence by various groups and populations has contributed to the disputes over sovereignty and international recognition.

According to worldometers.info, here are the countries in Africa, including disputed territories.

Countries in Africa

There are 54 countries in Africa today, according to the United Nations. The full list is shown in the table below, with current population and subregion (based on the United Nations official statistics).

Not included in this total of “countries” and listed separately are:

  • Dependencies (or dependent territories, dependent areas) or Areas of Special Sovereignty (autonomous territories)



1Nigeria200,963,599Western Africa
2Ethiopia112,078,730Eastern Africa
3Egypt100,388,073Northern Africa
4DR Congo86,790,567Middle Africa
5South Africa58,558,270Southern Africa
6Tanzania58,005,463Eastern Africa
7Kenya52,573,973Eastern Africa
8Uganda44,269,594Eastern Africa
9Algeria43,053,054Northern Africa
10Sudan42,813,238Northern Africa
11Morocco36,471,769Northern Africa
12Angola31,825,295Middle Africa
13Ghana30,417,856Western Africa
14Mozambique30,366,036Eastern Africa
15Madagascar26,969,307Eastern Africa
16Cameroon25,876,380Middle Africa
17Côte d’Ivoire25,716,544Western Africa
18Niger23,310,715Western Africa
19Burkina Faso20,321,378Western Africa
20Mali19,658,031Western Africa
21Malawi18,628,747Eastern Africa
22Zambia17,861,030Eastern Africa
23Senegal16,296,364Western Africa
24Chad15,946,876Middle Africa
25Somalia15,442,905Eastern Africa
26Zimbabwe14,645,468Eastern Africa
27Guinea12,771,246Western Africa
28Rwanda12,626,950Eastern Africa
29Benin11,801,151Western Africa
30Tunisia11,694,719Northern Africa
31Burundi11,530,580Eastern Africa
32South Sudan11,062,113Eastern Africa
33Togo8,082,366Western Africa
34Sierra Leone7,813,215Western Africa
35Libya6,777,452Northern Africa
36Congo5,380,508Middle Africa
37Liberia4,937,374Western Africa
38Central African Republic4,745,185Middle Africa
39Mauritania4,525,696Western Africa
40Eritrea3,497,117Eastern Africa
41Namibia2,494,530Southern Africa
42Gambia2,347,706Western Africa
43Botswana2,303,697Southern Africa
44Gabon2,172,579Middle Africa
45Lesotho2,125,268Southern Africa
46Guinea-Bissau1,920,922Western Africa
47Equatorial Guinea1,355,986Middle Africa
48Mauritius1,269,668Eastern Africa
49Eswatini1,148,130Southern Africa
50Djibouti973,560Eastern Africa
51Comoros850,886Eastern Africa
52Cabo Verde549,935Western Africa
53Sao Tome & Principe215,056Middle Africa
54Seychelles97,739Eastern Africa

Dependencies or other territories

Dependency of
2Western Sahara582,463(disputed)
4Saint Helena6,059U.K.
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  1. You forgot about Europes oldest African colonies, Canary Islands(Spain),Madiera (Portugal). Also Pelagie Islands (Italy)

  2. Why Africans neglecting the rights of Somaliland people to recocnise because they have returned back their soveriegnty in 1991 from southern after the union with Somalia in 1st July, 1960


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